Search for the Original Israelite Paternal Line

Family Tradition can be altered; Yichusim can be faked or forged; DNA is irrefutable.

According to the official Karaite Hakham outside of Israel, Meir Rekhavi

Meir Rekhavi

Who decides what a Paternal Jewish Line is? These are all 100% Paternal Lines of the Y Chromosome– which cannot be faked. These men, in each of their groups [J1, J2, and E1b] all share the exact same Paternal Line.

J1

Paternal Jewish Line J1

J2

Paternal Jewish Line

E1b1b

Paternal Jewish Line E

 

“In the search for indicators of the Israelite ancestry of Crimean Karaites it would be considered more relevant when they match Ashkenazim by Y-DNA as opposed to mtDNA since the mtDNA lineages of Ashkenazim show substantial European admixture and even traces of South Chinese, North Asian, and North African ancestries in some families whereas the Y-DNA of Ashkenazim is much more frequently of West Asian origin, including Levantine ancestry held in common with peoples like the Samaritans, Syrians, Lebanese, and Druze.”
THE GENETICS OF CRIMEAN KARAITES
Kevin Alan BROOK

In this genetic study, there were 20 men which produced Y DNA results; of these, 4 [20%] were positive for the J1 haplogroup, 6 [30%] were positive for the J2 haplogroup, 4 [20%] were positive for the E1b1 haplogroup, and 6 [30%] were from the haplogroups G [3 persons], L2a [1 person], R1b1 [1 person] and Q1b1 [1 person].

According to the following genetic study performed, 12 men of the 4 Samaritan families were tested for their Paternal Y Chromosome lineages. Of these, 4 were from the Sedaka family [tracing their lineage to Menashe], 4 were from the Joshua-Marhiv family [tracing their lineage to Ephraim], 2 were from the Danfi family [also tracing their lineage to Ephraim] and 2 were from the Cohen family [tracing their line to Levi].

Of these four families, the Sedaqa [Menashe] and Danfi [Ephraim] lines were positive for J2 [50%], while the Joshua-Marhiv [Ephraim] family was positive for J1 [33%] and the Cohen family was positive for E1b1b [16%].

Genetics and the History of the Samaritans: Y-Chromosomal
Microsatellites and Genetic Afinity between Samaritans and
Cohanim
PETER J. OEFNER, et al.

It is interesting to note that both the Samaritan and Karaites hold strictly to Paternal descent. If we combine these two groups, we have the following percentages.

Of the 32 men tested- representing 23 paternal lines [19 Karaite and 4 Samaritan]
37.5% J2
25% J1
18.75% E1b1b

It is also interesting to note that there were absolutely no other haplogroups outside J1, J2 and E1b1b found among the Samaritan community and only 1 person from each of the L2a, R1b1, and Q1b1 haplogroups [each representing 3%] and 3 from the G haplogroups [representing 9%] were found among the Karaites.

In a search for the original paternal line of the Israelites, it can be a safe assumption that the original line is one of these three- J1, J2, or E1b1b. It is, however, possible, that there was no such persons as Abraham, Isaac or Jacob and that the Israelites were an amalgamation of the peoples expelled from Egypt known as the Hyksos [which is the claim of many modern Israeli archealogists].

to be continued…

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Male and Female He created them

I find it absolutely amazing that the first woman was named Hawwah. Mitochondrial DNA is passed only from mother to child; mitochondria is the powerhouse of all living cells. Without mitochondrial DNA, no life would be possible.

Bereshith 1, 27 וַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים׀ אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמֹ֔ו בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹתֹ֑ו זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם׃

So Elohim created the Man [adam] in his image, in the image of Elohim, he created him; male and female he created them.

This was on the 6th day of creation; according to chapter two, Adam was created before the other creation was yet present upon the earth- which could be explained in many different ways. What is clear, from the second chapter, is that the male was created first- then the female from the male. Every human male born today is born with two specific sex chromosomes- X and Y. The X chromosome is the specific female sex chromosome and the Y is the specific male sex chromosome. Females inherit one X chromosome from their mothers and one X chromosome from their fathers; the males inherit the X chromosome from their mothers and the Y from their fathers. It was this X chromosome, in my opinion, which was separated from the first male to create the female- not a rib.

וַיַּפֵּל֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֧ים ׀ תַּרְדֵּמָ֛ה עַל־הָֽאָדָ֖ם וַיִּישָׁ֑ן וַיִּקַּ֗ח אַחַת֙ מִצַּלְעֹתָ֔יו וַיִּסְגֹּ֥ר בָּשָׂ֖ר תַּחְתֶּֽנָּה׃

And YHWH God made Adam fall into a deep sleep, and he slept; and He took one from his [tzela’], and closed up the flesh.

The Hebrew word, צֶלַע tzela’ meant also a chamber, or side-chamber וְהַצְּלָעוֹת֩ צֵלָ֨ע אֶל־צֵלָ֜ע שָׁל֧וֹשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים פְּעָמִ֗ים וּ֠בָאוֹת בַּקִּ֨יר אֲשֶׁר־לַבַּ֧יִת לַצְּלָע֛וֹת סָבִ֥יב ׀ סָבִ֖יב לִֽהְי֣וֹת אֲחוּזִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־יִֽהְי֥וּ אֲחוּזִ֖ים בְּקִ֥יר הַבָּֽיִת׃

And the [tzela’oth] were [tzala’] to [tzala’] thirty three times; and there were recesses in the wall which was of the house for the side chambers around, that they might have hold, so that they were not fastened into the wall of the house. Ezekiel 41:6 The following is an interesting commentary on this verse from Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki [Rashi]

“‎צלע אל צלע. Cell to cell and cell to cell.

‎שלוש ושלשים פעמים. But in the Second Temple, there were thirty-eight: fifteen in the north, and fifteen in the south – five upon five, and five atop them – and eight in the west. [The term] צלע‎ [tzela’] is synonymous with [yatzi’a] יציע‎ and with [ta] תא‎. I say that the cells in the north and the south were arranged as follows: each one was twelve cubits long, totaling sixty cubits for five cells, and five walls of five cubits each, totaling 85. The width of the cleared space was five cubits. Thus you have accounted for ninety cubits of the length of the wall, and so to the south. Those in the west were one on top of another, and a third atop them, and their length across their top was twenty cubits, paralleling the width of the Holy of Holies, making eleven in each row. So did Jonathan render: eleven in a row.”

The word [yatzi’a] יציע‎ is used in 1 Kings 6:5 which described the same structures in the Temple of Solomon

וַיִּבֶן֩ עַל־קִ֨יר הַבַּ֤יִת יצוע [יָצִ֨יעַ֙] סָבִ֔יב אֶת־קִיר֤וֹת הַבַּ֨יִת֙ סָבִ֔יב לַֽהֵיכָ֖ל וְלַדְּבִ֑יר וַיַּ֥עַשׂ צְלָע֖וֹת סָבִֽיב׃

And against the wall of the house he built a [yatzi’a] around the walls of the house, both of the temple and of the sanctuary; and he made [tzela’oth] around
It is- more than likely- from, this word the Latin cella came from. In Latin, cella meant chamber and this word passed into English as cell. “Cells were discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named them for their resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.” Wikipedia
In verse 21, it used the plural tsal’oth, but in verse 22 it used the singular. We can, therefore, substitute the word cell for tsela’ in these verses:
And YHWH God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his cells, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof. And the cell, which YHWH God had taken from the man, built He a woman, and brought her unto the man. And the man said: ‘This is substance/essence of my substance/essence, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’
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Karaite Bookstore

via Karaite Bookstore

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I Want/Intend to Make for Him a Helper Genesis 2:18

          A very profound statement that I wish to discuss. I would love to hear your opinions as to the meaning of this pasuq

וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים לֹא־טֹ֛וב הֱיֹ֥ות הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְבַדֹּ֑ו אֶֽעֱשֶׂהּ־לֹּ֥ו עֵ֖זֶר כְּנֶגְדֹּֽו׃

Genesis 2:18

          There are two primary parts to this pasuq [verse]. The first part ends with לבדו levaddo [by himself] and the second part ends with כנגדו keneghdo [as his opposite]. The first part began with a consecutive imperfect verb ויאמר wayYomer [then he said] and the second part began with a volitional imperfect- specifically, the cohortative אעשׂה e’eseh [I want/intend to make]; this latter verb is conjuncted to the prepositional phrase לו lo [for him] by the maqqef [a hyphen] which indicated the indirect object of the volitional verb [I want/intend to make].
          While the first part of the verse began with a consecutive imperfect, there is no definite direct object of the verb [then he said]. On the contrary, the entire clause לא־טוב היות האדם לבדו lo-tov heyoth ha-Adham levaddo [it is not good that the human being should be alone] is an independent clause and is, therefore, the direct object of the verb. The dependent clause היות האדם heyoth ha-adham is not the primary point of the independent clause itself- rather the prepositional phrase לבדו levaddo [alone] is. We can remove the relative clause out and the phrase would still contain the main meaning of the negating element [Then YHWH Elohim said, alone is not good].
          The second part of the verse explains the corrective course of action which YHWH intended to remedy the problem that the human was alone. The primary focus of the intention was upon the noun עזר ezer [help] which is the direct object of the verb אעשׂה e’eseh [I want/intend to make] while the indirect object is the prepositional phrase לו lo [for him]. It is clear that the primary intention of YHWH was to make for the human a helper. The final prepositional phrase, then, expresses the function of the direct object which YHWH intended to make for the human כנגדו keneghdo [as his opposite].
          At no time did YHWH express an intention to make an equal for the man, but a helper. This is important because many assume that the woman was an equal to the man and, somehow, lost this equality when she ate from the forbidden fruit. That opinion, however, is not tenable from the context of Genesis 1-3.
          While it is true that YHWH stated that both the man and woman had rule over the creatures of the earth, at no time did he place human beings under that purview of rule- neither had the right to rule over the other. Therefore, it was not any right of equality of rule which the woman- somehow- lost. In fact, there is no mention of the woman having lost anything in YHWH’s judgment of her. She remained, as was originally planned and intended, a helper- not a slave, a helper.
          According to the narrative, the desire of the woman would be toward her man and that he would ימשׁל־בך yimshol-bakh [he shall rule you]. This is not a statement of loss of position as the woman was never said to have rule over anything but the creatures of the earth- the same as the man. It was clear that she was intended to be a helper, not a co-regent. She was never demoted. The man, as is the right of every firstborn, actually had the role of leadership- albeit, there are instances in the Tenakh where the firstborn lost that right. Adham was made first and the woman made from the man- meaning she was from him, but he not from her. At no time was the man beholden to the woman, but she was beholden to the man. This is not a position of inequality, but of respect- the elders of the family have more “authority” in decision making than the younger.
          The wife is, as was originally intended, the helper of her husband. It must be born in mind that helper does not mean servant- although service is also a form of help. On the contrary, help means a mutual endeavor to achieve a common goal. Although the man has the rule of the house and his wife is, as are his children, his property, this does not mean the man has no responsibility in the household- she is not his slave. Both must work together to make a Peaceful, Functioning, and Mutually Beneficial home.
 א Who can find a valiant woman? for her price is far above precious stones.
ב The heart of her husband safely trusts in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil.
ג She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.
ד She sought wool and flax and worked willingly with her hands.
ה She was like the merchants’ ships; she brings her food from afar.
ו She rose up even at night and gave food to her family and a portion to her maidens.
ז She considered the inheritance and bought it; with the fruit of her hands she planted a vineyard.
ח She girded her loins with strength and strengthened her arms.
ט She perceived that her merchandise was good; her fire did not go out by night.
י She laid her hands to the spindle, and her hands held the distaff.
כ She stretched out her hand to the poor; yea, she reached forth her hands to the destitute.
ל She shall not be afraid of the snow for her family, for all her family is clothed with double garments.
מ She makes herself tapestries; her clothing is of fine linen and purple.
נ Her husband is known in the gates when he sits among the elders of the land.
ס She made fine linen and sold it and delivered girdles unto the merchant.
ע Strength and glory is her clothing, and she shall laugh in the last day.
פ She opened her mouth with wisdom, and the law of mercy is upon her tongue.
צ She looks well to the ways of her household and does not eat bread in idleness.
ק Her sons rose up and called her blessed; her husband also, and he praised her.
ר Many daughters have done valiantly, but thou dost excel them all.
ש Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but the woman that fears the LORD shall be praised.
ת Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her own works praise her in the gates.
Proverb 31:10-31
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Interpretation and Biblical Scholarship

כֹּל פֵּירוּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוּ עַל פֵּירוּשׁ הַטְעָמִים לֹא תֹאבֶה לֹו וְלֹא תִשְׁמַע אֵלָיו

You shall not consent to nor listen to any interpretation which is not according to the interpretation of the te’amim [meaning the Masoretic vocalizations and accents].

Abraham ibn Ezra 1089–c.1167 one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical peshat commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages. Bracketed text is mine.

The Massoretic vocalization and accents are the written vowel signs and accent marks found in the Hebrew Bible which were devised by the Masoretes- a group of priestly Bible scholars between the 5th and 10th centuries ACE. Their responsibility was to safeguard the meaning of the Hebrew Text and the correct pronunciation of the Hebrew language due to the exile of the Israelite peoples and their subsequent loss of their knowledge of the Hebrew language. It is due to the work of these Masorete Scholars that the Hebrew Text of the Bible was safeguarded- as well as the correct rules to Hebrew grammar.

To be a scholar [חָכָם- Hakham] of the Hebrew Bible, which is the definition of a Karaite, one must use proper skills in interpretation. Interpretation means, literally, translation- it comes from the Latin interpres which was a broker or one which was employed to act as a liaison between two parties. Anyone who wishes to have an interpretation of the Bible can only have one in which it is between the Hebrew Text and themselves; in order to do this, one must first have mastered the Hebrew language. No person can be said to interpret a text of scripture from a translation [a word which means something that was carried across- that is, carried from Hebrew to another language]. Exposition of the Hebrew Text is being able to extrapolate exegesis from the Hebrew Text and expound it to those who do not know Hebrew themselves in a correct and understandable manner. When it comes to true Biblical Scholarship, one employs the skill of exegesis- meaning one brings a meaning from the Text. This is then passed along to others in the form of exposition- which is setting the exegesis before an audience or students.

Poor Biblical Scholarship is the exact opposite. A false interpreter uses eisegesis- adding something into a text which wasn’t there- and imposition- which means to put a thesis into the Text.

True Biblical Scholarship= Exegesis and Exposition

False Biblical Scholarship= Eisegesis and Imposition

A false interpreter= one who does not know the original language for which he claims to translate- all interpretation equals translation which cannot be accomplished from one ignorant of the language to be translated.

I challenge everyone who reads this to do an etymological search for the following words:

Interpretation

Translation

Exegesis

Exposition

Eisegesis

Imposition

What many, today, mean by interpretation is actually opinion. Opinion comes from the Latin opinor which means to opine- that is, to imagine or the think, to suppose. The motto of the Karaite [Bible Scholar] is

חַפִּשׂוּ בְאֹורַיְיתָא שַׁפִּיר וְאַל תִּשָּׁעֲנוּ עַל דַּעְתִּי
Search in the Torah thoroughly and do not support yourself with my opinion.
Anan bin David
 

This motto is interesting and profound. The first part is Aramaic and the second Hebrew. The first word חַפִּשׂוּ- happisu is a plural imperative from from חפשׂ which meant to search- it is a duty for everyone to do this. The second part begins with the negating particle אל- al which is used as a temporary negation; when a permanent negation is meant, the negating particle לא- lo is used. This means that we are not to support ourselves on any opinion immediately, but are to take every opinion to task and search in the Torah for the truth of the matter. If it proves to not violate the Tenakh, then we may accept an opinion.

An example of how we can understand the advice of ibn Ezra and the Karaite Motto spoken by Anan ben David can be seen from the first chapter of Genesis.

In the first chapter of Genesis, we find the statement

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם בְּצַלְמֵ֖נוּ כִּדְמוּתֵ֑נוּ וְיִרְדּוּ֩ בִדְגַ֨ת הַיָּ֜ם וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבְכָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃

And Elohim said, “We want to make a human in our image- according to our likeness; that they may rule over the fish of the seas, the bird of the skies, the beast, over all the earth and the creeping things which creep on the earth.”

The normal translation of נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם na’aseh adham is Let us make a man- which indicated that Elohim was seeking permission as opposed to stating His intention and desire to accomplish the act. The verb נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה na’aseh is a cohortative and not simply an imperfect verb. A cohortative always comes at the beginning of its clause- as this verb clearly did. An interesting aspect of the cohortative is that it expresses a wish or desire- an intention to accomplish something. In a similar manner, we can also understand other uses of the cohortative in relation to YHWH- for instance in Genesis 12:2-3

 

וְאֶֽעֶשְׂךָ֙ לְג֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל וַאֲבָ֣רֶכְךָ֔ וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה שְׁמֶ֑ךָ וֶֽהְיֵ֖ה בְּרָכָֽה׃
I will make you a great nation, and bless you; I want to make your name great- so be a blessing,
 
וַאֲבָֽרְכָה֙ מְבָ֣רְכֶ֔יךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ֖ אָאֹ֑ר וְנִבְרְכ֣וּ בְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הָֽאֲדָמָֽה׃

I want to bless those blessing you and those cursing you, I will curse; so that by you all the families of the land shall be blessed.

The final clause “and you will be a blessing” is grossly mistranslated by all translations. The verb וֶֽהְיֵ֖ה wehyeh is an imperative- it is a command; every translation falsely translated this imperative as an imperfect וְהָיִיתָ [and you shall be]. The final clause is rightly translated as “so be a blessing.”

Another interesting thing about these translations is the final clause of the first section וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה שְׁמֶ֑ךָ which is normally translated as “and I will make your name great” as if this is a consecutive verb, but it is not. The verb וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה wa’aghaddelah is in the cohortative- which expresses a volition, a wish in the 1st person singular or plural. If it had been a consecutive verb in the imperfect, it would have been written וָאֶגְדַּל wa’eghdal, but it was not. The clause should have been translated as “I want to make your name great.” 

This same construction was used throughout this parashah [section]- for instance:

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה זַֽעֲקַ֛ת סְדֹ֥ם וַֽעֲמֹרָ֖ה כִּי־רָ֑בָּה וְחַ֨טָּאתָ֔ם כִּ֥י כָֽבְדָ֖ה מְאֹֽד׃ אֵֽרְדָה־נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה הַכְּצַֽעֲקָתָ֛הּ הַבָּ֥אָה אֵלַ֖י עָשׂ֣וּ ׀ כָּלָ֑ה וְאִם־לֹ֖א אֵדָֽעָה׃

And YHWH said, “the cry of Sodom and Amorah- it is great; for their sin has become very great. I want to go down and see- have they completely done according to its cry that comes to me; and if not, I want to know.” Genesis 18:20-21

I think it is better to translate any cohortative in reference to YHWH as a volitional intent as opposed to translating it as a request using the English let- as this is a form of asking permission or allowance to do something.

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Sefer ha-Torah

Sefer ha Torah

PDF with facsimiles of a Torah Scroll as used in Synagogue

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Does the Bible Really Support the Claim of Flat-Earthers that there is a Dome in the Sky?

This is a short study explaining the incorrect view that the Bible supports the flat earth view of a solid dome over the earth.

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