Shabbath

Shabbath [שׁבּת], according to the Torah, is the seventh day of the week. Shabbath means to cease and on the seventh day of the week, one ceases their work which they do on the preceding six days.

The concept of Shabbath, for Israelites, is derived from two events: 1) the completion of the act of creation; 2) the exodus from Egypt- as it was stated in the Torah

זָכֹ֛ור֩ אֶת־יֹ֥֨ום הַשַּׁבָּ֖֜ת לְקַדְּשֹֽׁ֗ו שֵׁ֤֣שֶׁת יָמִ֣ים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד֮ וְעָשִׂ֖֣יתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ֒ וְיֹ֙ום֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔֜י שַׁבָּ֖֣ת׀ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֗יךָ לֹֽ֣א־תַעֲשֶׂ֣֨ה כָל־מְלָאכָ֡֜ה אַתָּ֣ה׀ וּבִנְכָֽ֣־֠וּבִתֶּ֗ךָ עַבְדְּךָ֤֨ וַאֲמָֽתְךָ֜֙ וּבְהֶמְתֶּ֔֗ךָ וְגֵרְךָ֖֙ אֲשֶׁ֥֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶֽ֔יךָ כִּ֣י שֵֽׁשֶׁת־יָמִים֩ עָשָׂ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔ם וַיָּ֖נַח בַּיֹּ֣ום הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑י עַל־כֵּ֗ן בֵּרַ֧ךְ יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־יֹ֥ום הַשַּׁבָּ֖ת וַֽיְקַדְּשֵֽׁהוּ׃

To remember the Shabbath day- to sanctify it. Six days you shall serve and do all your work [מלאכה], but the seventh day is a Shabbath for YHWH your God; you shall not do any work [מלאכה]- you, your son, your daughter, your male slave, female slave, your beast, nor your resident which is in your gates. For in six days YHWH made the heavens, the earth, the sea and all that is in them and stopped on the seventh day- for this reason YHWH blessed and sanctified the Shabbath. Exodus 20:8-11

 

שָׁמֹ֣֛ור אֶת־יֹ֥ום֩ הַשַּׁבָּ֖֨ת לְקַדְּשֹׁ֑֜ו כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖֣׀ יְהוָ֥֣ה אֱלֹהֶֽ֗יךָ שֵׁ֤֣שֶׁת יָמִ֣ים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד֮ וְעָשִׂ֖֣יתָ כָּֿל־מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ֒׃ וְיֹ֙ום֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜֔י שַׁבָּ֖֣ת׀ לַיהוָ֖֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֗יךָ לֹ֣א תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה כָל־מְלָאכָ֡ה אַתָּ֣ה וּבִנְכָֽ־וּבִתֶּ֣ךָ וְעַבְדְּכָֽ־֠וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשֹׁורְךָ֨ וַחֲמֹֽרְךָ֜ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּ֗ךָ וְגֵֽרְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ לְמַ֗עַן יָנ֛וּחַ עַבְדְּךָ֥ וַאֲמָתְךָ֖ כָּמֹֽ֑וךָ׃ וְזָכַרְתָּ֞֗ כִּ֣י־עֶ֤֥בֶד הָיִ֣֙יתָ֙׀ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔֗יִם וַיֹּצִ֨אֲךָ֜֩ יְהוָ֤֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֤֙יךָ֙ מִשָּׁ֔ם֙ בְּיָ֤֥ד חֲזָקָ֖ה֙ וּבִזְרֹ֣עַ נְטוּיָ֑֔ה עַל־כֵּ֗ן צִוְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לַעֲשֹׂ֖ות אֶת־יֹ֥ום הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃

To keep the Shabbath day- to sanctify it as YHWH your God commanded you. Six days you shall serve and do all your work [מלאכה], but the seventh day is a Shabbath for YHWH your God; you shall not do any work [מלאכה]- you, your son, your daughter, your male slave, your female slave, your ox, your ass, nor any beast, nor your resident which is in your gates- that your male slaves and female slaves can stop as you. You must remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, but YHWH your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm; for this reason, YHWH your God commanded you to perform the Shabbath day. Deuteronomy 5:12-15

Work [מלאכה], from the context, is any work performed for service or for hire- as the meaning of work is found in the two clauses

שׁשׁת ימים תעבד ועשׂית כל מלאכתך Six days you shall serve and do all your work.

By this it is clear that work [מלאכה] encompasses both service [עבודה] as well work [מעשׂה]; work, in this context, should be considered to be performed for hire as Torah explained the service of the hired man

וְכִֽי־יָמ֥וּךְ אָחִ֛יךָ עִמָּ֖ךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָ֑ךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹ֥ד בֹּ֖ו עֲבֹ֥דַת עָֽבֶד׃ כְּשָׂכִ֥יר כְּתֹושָׁ֖ב יִהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֑ךְ עַד־שְׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַעֲבֹ֥ד עִמָּֽךְ׃

If your brother becomes indigent with you and is sold to you, you shall not make him serve [לא־תעבד בו] the service of a slave [עבדת עבד]. As a hired man [שׂכיר] or a migrant worker [תושׁב] shall he be with you- until the year of the Jubilee shall he serve you [יעבד עמך]. Leviticus 25:39-40

Therefore, one’s daily service or work- for which one is paid- should be suspended on the Shabbath.